Jura's constitu- issn tion is the first constitution of a monolingual canton deal- ing with language issues. Moreover, a motion was passed at the Parliament in and is the base for a new law about the "use of the French language" that has recently been accepted by the Parliament. Why is the canton of Jura the sole monolingual Swiss canton with such a lan- guage law?
Why is the project close in its content to the famous Bill from Quebec? Why is it felt that French is threatened in the Jura and needs a law to help protect and illustrate it? Analysing the situation from a critical so- ciolinguistics perspective, this article will focus on the lan- guage ideologies put forward in these laws the constitu- tion, the draft law from the s and the new law written in the twenty-first century and the power issues at work in this context.
During the four decades of de und Lehrende vor zahlreiche Probleme. Die ships in southern Italy: Doch welche Form soll die Begleitung ence in when tens of thousands of refugees arrived des autonomen Lernprozesses in diesem Kontext anneh- not only in Europe, but also in Albania and other neighbor- men? Soll man sich zum Ziel setzen, gegen alte Praktiken ing countries, after the outbreak of open war in Kosovo. Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. In Delahaie carried out re- search on how three Flemish teachers of French taught a communicative spoken French course to their classes.
She shows that only the teacher who benefited from the use of LANCOM in her training succeeds in making her pupils ac- quire authentic spoken French, even though, due to lack of practice, she is a less fluent speaker of French than her two colleagues. This study addresses the issue of how corpora can be used to meet teachers' needs when they have to deal with the thorny issue of spoken French ability.
Aufgrund der untersuchten Sprachen experimental setting consisted of three conditions: The impact on speaker das Stimmsignal ist. The results from this experiment indicate that listeners are able to perform the identification task to a considerable degree url under all three experimental conditions. We conclude that http: Mon manuel de progressively introduced to the public space.
Si loin et si proche. Entre espace et paysage. A new social order resulting from neoliberal economic practices, globalisation and out- sourcing also challenges traditional ways the nation-state has organized its control over the people who have typical- ly travelled to a new country looking for work or better life chances.
This collection provides an account of the ways language addresses core questions concerning power and the place of migrants in various institutional and workplace settings. It brings together contributions from a range of geographical settings to understand better how linguistic inequality is re produced in this new economic order. Language, migration and social inequalities: Kernbegriffe der Sprachdidaktik Deutsch. Ein Handbuch Kernbegriffe der Sprachdidaktik Deutsch.
Ein Handbuch sprache langue sprache langue Deutsch Deutsch verlag publication verlag publication Schneider Verlag Hohengehren Schneider Verlag Hohengehren erscheinungsort lieu de parution erscheinungsort lieu de parution Baltmannsweiler Baltmannsweiler fundstelle pages fundstelle pages S. The logometric analysis of the six French debates, Linguistik, Schulwesen which occurred since their creation in , enables to ex- amine the 'lexical surface' developed for that occasion. An existing soft- in real time and displays the result via an avatar. The evaluation data is from a focus of the projects during which JASigning was developed are group with seven Deaf signers who provided feedback on the main source of documentation for the system along how to improve the DSGS avatar.
They identified several with notes on the website. Not all planned features have aspects that had to be modified: Among them were the been fully implemented: Our team of gerspelling and mouthings, the temporal coordination of hearing and Deaf researchers identified the avatar func- the manual and non-manual components of a sign, and the tionality we needed for our project. In close collaboration handling of lists of signs. These aspects are not just rele- with the developers of JASigning, we then found vant for train announcements in DSGS, but for data of oth- workarounds for those features that were not yet directly er kinds and other sign languages as well.
Our goal for this paper is to share the solutions we found, thereby providing a use case for doi exploiting the full potential of JASigning. The features we Among them were the extension of non-manual features over mul- tiple signs, the addition of pauses between items of a signed list, or the introduction of stamping movements fol- lowing successive identical digits and fingerspelled let- ters. Hence, knowledge of how to achieve their designated effects in the JASigning system can be useful to persons working with other types of sign language data as well.
Linguistics for intercultural education in language intergouvernementale. De work of Reference descriptors of communicative compe- ce fait, le multilinguisme national ne va pas automatique- tence, widely used in curriculum design and teacher edu- ment de pair avec le plurilinguisme individuel dans les lan- cation across Europe, are benefitting from a high gues nationales.
Hence, the formulation of intercultural learning ob- territoire Suisse sont plurilingues: Beurteilen Writing Research, Vol. Similarly to writing research, translation studies has recently moved from an almost exclusive focus fundstelle pages on products towards considering workplace and cognitive S. Anders als in lation process.
It allows us to monitor Kommunikation entscheidet. It also provides rich data that Migration aufgezeigt, welche grosse Bedeutung den make it possible to infer the practices and metalinguistic non-verbalen Kommunikationsmitteln, Interaktions- und awareness that characterize the translation competence Kommunikationsstrategien sowie dem Grad der Kooperati- of translators with different levels of experience. Gender and Language, Vol. Thus many official texts are translated from one official language into the others.
The isbn new Federal Language Law Sprachengesetz, Loi sur les langues, Legge sulle lingue, Lescha da linguas adopted in demands that official language use must be adequate, clear and intelligible as well as non-sexist. Non- sexist language has been required in the German section of the Federal Chancellery for about 15 years, whereas the French and Italian sections have shown little interest in modifying their use of language, sticking to a more traditional language use in which masculine terms are used both specifically as well as generically.
In our article, we offer a brief overview of the legal and linguistic situation in multilingual Switzerland, where language use is being regulated not only on the federal, but also on the cantonal and municipal level. We will then focus more specifically on official texts that the Chancellery sends to Swiss citizens — information about legal issues, elections or votes, which must be made available as translations in every official language —. The following questions are dealt with: How does the legal context in Switzerland encourage non-sexist language use?
To what degree do the official languages comply with non-sexist language use? In particular, do they admit or avoid generically used masculine forms? What differences can be observed in various translated versions of the same text? Variation in language and language use: La conoscenza del tedesco Grammatik - Kognition - Interaktion necessaria'.
Metzler Italiano erscheinungsort lieu de parution fundstelle pages Stuttgart S. Cudesch da lingua per la 7. Studiosi e addetti ai lavori offrono in questo volume uno spaccato dell'uso della lingua italiana nel contesto istitu- zionale federale svizzero, analizzando alcune tipologie te- stuali chiave per i rapporti tra Stato e cittadini, come i co- municati stampa, le pagine Internet o gli atti normativi.
Marcadores del discurso en las Di Dio Hrsg: Eine Erhebung in sechs Kantonen: Ideological Conceptualizations of Language. It is a machine learning-based metric that is Frankfurt a. Input features are generated by applying au- fundstelle pages tomatic translation error analysis to the translation hy- S. When evaluated against WMT' rankings, the integration, Swiss German systemlevel agreement is rather high for several language pairs. Bildung Lichter blauer Erwartung. Das poetische Schreiben von Schweiz, Nr. Wenn sich die Lehrperson dieses Lernpotenzials bewusst ist, entstehen gemeinsam mit den seitenzahl nombre de pages Kindern laufend neue Chancen lebendigen Lernens.
Auch machte er sich als Kulturvermittler und Feuilleto- nist einen Namen. Integration wird in der Schweiz als ein multilateraler Pro- zess verstanden, der gleichermassen eine politische, sozi- issn ale und individuelle Verantwortung einschliesst. Eine beitswelt und in der Berufsbildung gewidmet. Jene der Arbeitswelt, jene der Politik und jene der fremdsprachenlandschaft-berufliche-grundbildung-eine- Didaktik. In que- sto contributo si delineano i fondamenti di una tale didatti- ca, definita didattica per situazioni DpS.
Space in language and linguistics: Spoken and Written Language: Typen und Funktionen volkssprachiger althochdeut- scher Eintragungen im lateinischen Kontext. Vielfalt, Variation und Stellung der deutschen Sprache sprache langue English sprache langue Deutsch verlag publication Cambridge Scholars Publishing verlag publication De Gruyter erscheinungsort lieu de parution Newcastle upon Tyne erscheinungsort lieu de parution Berlin, Boston fundstelle pages S. Darauf werden im SDS latent vorhan- dene, aber prima vista nicht erkennbare synthetischquan- titative Raumstrukturen sichtbar.
Since the forum Immersion au niveau universitaire: The greatest difficulty French at a university level. A first study of the best prac- during the translation process is to generate the correct tices in this field is the main object of the article. Quechua verb form in subordinated clauses. The prototype has several rules that decide which verb form should be issn used in a given context. However, matching the context in order to apply the correct rule depends crucially on the parsing quality of the Spanish input.
As the form of the url subordinated verb depends heavily on the conjunction in http: Normes et communication en milieu professionnel international: Vielheit und Einheit der Germanistik weltweit. Clooney advocates another reading: Wandel und Konstanz Tscharner Hrsg: Akten der Dritten Grossen. Angehenden Primarlehrern wurden Tex- te von 3. Die Ergeb- url nisse werden in diesem Beitrag exemplarisch an zwei Text- http: This apparently straightforward question proves difficult erscheinungsort lieu de parution to answer, for conceptual as well as empirical reasons. This Amsterdam short paper begins with an overview of the issue, showing that qualitative research on language use at work, though fundstelle pages necessary, is not sufficient to understand the processes S.
As shown in several chapters of this book, actors con- fronted with the need to communicate in a multilingual con- issn text use a variety of strategies. These strategies may be more or less directly influenced by the language policies adopted by the public or private sector institutions in url which they operate. Such policies may also be extremely http: This chapter is devot- ed to the development of such criteria on the basis of the core principles of policy analysis, as it is applied to a host of other questions ranging from education planning to the provision of health services and environmental protection.
We first show how the standard criteria of efficiency and fairness can be constructed and used with reference to language. We then infer from this analytical framework a matrix for the generation of a system of indicators of effi- ciency and fairness in multilingual communication. The claim is some- url times made that ELF, as a multilingual way of using English, http: In this article, we question the relevance of the concept of ELF from a language policy perspective, showing that the socioeco- nomic implications of using ELF are no different from those of using English only.
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The use of translation and interpreting, though not free, remains more effective and at a reasonable cost than a monolingual regime based on English alone; it is also more fair than a monolingual regime which unavoidably privileges native speakers. Key issues and is Linguistic Fragmentation Bad? The Oxford Handbook of Development. Policy, Pedagogy and Globalization Sociolinguistics sprache langue sprache langue English English verlag publication verlag publication Multilingual Matters Oxford University Press erscheinungsort lieu de parution erscheinungsort lieu de parution Bristol Oxford fundstelle pages fundstelle pages S.
These are the management of communication in supra-, inter-, or multinational struc- tures, in particular the European Union; the protection and promotion of regional or minority languages; and the lin- guistic dimensions of immigration and migrant integration. The concluding section proposes an integrative assess- ment, before venturing suggestions regarding suitable policy responses to meet these challenges.
Akten Annalas da la Societad Retorumantscha, Vol. Colloqui retoromanistic, Lavin sprache langue Rumantsch sprache langue Deutsch fundstelle pages S. Juni sprache langue Deutsch sprache langue fundstelle pages Deutsch S. Im zweiten Teil geht es um das, was in der englischsprachigen Literatur heute mehrheitlich als teacher cognition bezeich- net wird. Es ist das, wozu man sich irgendwie ver- S. Mehrsprachigkeit und Schulbuch sprache langue Deutsch sprache langue Deutsch fundstelle pages S. For further reference, a set of good practice examples and a list of book recom- mendations is included.
International Journal for the Semiotics of Law Nr. It illustrates a how sprachenunterricht neue Perspektiven — beispielsweise im presuppositions are triggered in these texts and b what Rahmen von Online-Kooperationsprojekten. The present study argues that, if em- bieten. English as a Contact Language sprache langue Deutsch sprache langue English verlag publication [Eigenverlag] verlag publication Cambridge University Press erscheinungsort lieu de parution Safien erscheinungsort lieu de parution Cambridge seitenzahl nombre de pages S.
While asymmetric alternations are regulated by Zweck werden der aktuelle Forschungsstand, Entscheide referential properties of the direct object referent, sym- und Vorgaben der Sprachenpolitik sowie die Praxis der Bil- metric alternations are governed by parameters related to dungsverwaltung in dieser Frage dargelegt.
For example, they analyze the S. Journal of Language and Culture, Pahud Hrsg: Se vivre entre les langues: The different isbn contact situations in which the Mon language has been between Thailand and Myanmar has led to numerous in- stances of language change. The influence has not been one-way, with Mon on the receiving end only, but Mon was also the source of restructuring in Burmese and Thai. The present paper attempts to trace some of the contact in- duced changes in the three languages involved.
It is not always clear which language was the source of shared vo- cabulary and constructions, but in many cases linguistic and historical facts can be adduced to find answers. While Mon language use in Thailand is diminishing fast and Mon in this country is undergoing restructuring according to Thai patterns, in Myanmar Mon is actually still exerting in- fluence on Burmese, albeit mostly on a local level in varie- ties spoken in Mon and Karen States.
The contact between genetically and typologically very different languages as is the case here leads in many cases to linguistically inter- esting outcomes. A la quindi costituisce oggetto di apprendimento indiretto. Empirical methods are lively discussed in introductory text books and are slowly beginning to become a regular component of linguistic curricula — at least in German- speaking countries. In this volume, scholars from various disciplines in linguistics present their current studies, each article focusing on research methods. Obviously, this volume does not intend to give a complete overview of methods in linguistics, but rather demonstrates with a few examples how a focus on methods can improve linguistic research and contribute to further discussions of the use of methods in linguistics.
Ce vo- tronic versions. This includes data on the relative tier. The number of word forms for a particular isbn language depends on the size and composition of the cor- pus used. This list of words with frequency classes is also available as a plain text file on the CD-ROM and is ordered issn both alphabetically and by frequency. Im zweiten Teil werden die Resultate einer Evaluation mit Versuchs- und Vergleichsgruppe geschildert.
Dabei wird besonders auch auf Fragen der Messung und Evalua- tion von komplexen Schreibkompetenzen eingegangen. Adjectives in child speech and child-directed speech were coded as either issn unrelated or related to a contrastive term in the preceding context.smarexertemi.gq/una-noche-con-el-prncipe.php
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Results show large differences between children in the growth of adjective production. These differences are strongly related to contrast use. High contrast users not only increase adjective use earlier, but also reach a stable level of adjective production in the investigated pe- riod. Average or low contrast users increase their adjective production more slowly and do not reach a plateau in the period covered by this study.
Initially there is a strong rela- tion between contrast use in child speech and child-di- rected speech, but this relation diminishes with age. It creates an environment for collabo- Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik, Mehrsprachiger Unterricht rative learning and provides opportunities for a differenti- ated approach. One of the main advantages of Edmodo is that it url provides a secure learning environment and that privacy http: The interface resembles social net- aspx?
The Edmodo network offers possibilities for presenting work carried out by various groups in the class, for provid- ing peer feedback and for discussing various aspects of the novel. The classifi- free occurring conversational data in French as a second cation is guided by a perspective of information extraction, language. Its focus of attention is a debated concept with- relies on linguistic tests and aims at the separation of se- in the conversation analytic approach, i.
After an overview of the existing literature on topic collocational constructions. Apart from descriptive sta- management and the conceptualisation of learning and L2 tistical material, we present results of experiments using interactional competence, the main part of the article will monolingual and multilingual evidence the latter from in- be concerned with data analysis.
The data show an au-pair formative English and Spanish translations in order to girl speaking French with her host-family at different points predict the semantic classes. The longitudinal design allows for describing in de- tail and conceptualising L2 interactional competence and issn its development. In fact, taking into consideration interac- tional aspects, such as sequential and action organisa- tion, it contributes to a better understanding of L2 learn- doi ing.
The results show how topic management is not only the This article contrib- utes to an ongoing debate in the field of CA and, especially, CA-SLA about conceptualising L2 learning and tracking the development of L2 interactional competence. In konsequenter Orientie- cher. Der Bericht soll einen Bei- trag leisten zu weiteren Entwicklungen in diesem Bereich. Jahrhundert abde- url cken, und der Fachliteratur zum rezenten Schweizer- http: Creativity and the Agile Mind. Nevertheless, and maybe for these same reasons, S.
Numerous studies have shown the importance of corpus exploitation both at the level of isbn the development of autonomy and of the linguistic aware- ness of the learners. Based on these reports, the present article describes a comparative study using a bilingual dic- tionary, a monolingual dictionary and a generic corpus to identify and understand certain items such as uncounta- ble nouns in English.
The experiment took place in a Uni- versity Institute of Technology in France with the coopera- tion of students in the first year of Commercial Marketing. This work looks at the students' linguistic awareness ac- cording to the use of these three resources. The results of the study invite critical reflection on the means to be de- veloped for effective practices of observation and intake of language by ESP learners. Ausgehend von den walliserdeut- Akzentkonturen der Grundfrequenz f0 des Walliserdeut- schen Sprachdaten von Leemann im Rahmen des schen.
Blick aus der Zukunft auf die 4. He then explains S. The author concludes verabschiedet, auf dessen Grundlage die kantonalen by arguing that the resources developed by the fide pro- Schulsysteme besser aufeinander abgestimmt harmoni- ject can support the development of similar learner-cen- siert und modernisiert werden sollen. For this purpose we combine Clark's activities. In recent decades, the Internet has been adopt- work on the creation of meaning with a multi-modal tool-kit ed by professionals and non-professionals alike for im- for analysis.
The paper ends with an assessment on how parting knowledge, support, and advice-giving. The first website, entitled the Teenage Health Language is not just a means to pass factual content from Freak THF , targets young people and offers a health fo- one person to another, it is also a tool to shape relation- rum tailored to the needs of those aged between 10— When The second website, entitled Lucy Answers LA , is a pro- we use language, we therefore also reveal something about fessional, US-based health advice column that targets ourselves and our relationships with others.
The quantitative approach draws upon the tools and isbn techniques of corpus linguistics. Corpus-based linguistic studies involve analysing extensive data sets, consisting of thousands or millions of words so as to discover pat- doi terns of use which may be then subjected to more interpre- The approach involves interro- gating large data sets or "corpora" of language and applies both quantitative and qualitative techniques to linguistic analysis; it is thus able to overcome some of the potential drawbacks of these approaches used in isola- tion.
Corpus linguistics is an approach that is becoming increasingly popular in analysing health communication Adolphs et al. The findings of the corpus study are then integrated with a more detailed qualitative analysis of specific data stretches where lexico-grammatical pattern- ing is examined. The next section of the paper focuses in more detail on computer-mediated-communication and our selected web- sites in particular, along with a consideration of the impor- tance and complexities involved in advice giving in health contexts. The mixed-methodological approach is then de- tailed in section 3.
Results of the empirical data analysis are presented in section 4, and the consequences of these are discussed in section 5. A conclusion then follows. Within a multilingual as well as multicultural ckelt wurde. It aims to shed light on how language use and code-switch- issn ing are massively involved within trainer activities.
Through some examples it is stressed that rather than setting ob- stacles to face-to-face communication, code-switching url and bilingual speech tend to be used by the coach as re- http: The observed practices lead to a fresh view on multilingualism, based on two complementary conceptions: Inwiefern spielen dabei kulturelle Faktoren eine Rolle? Content-and-Language Integrated Learning wird conseguenze sia per i processi che per i prodotti dei curri- heute auch in der Primarstufe der deutschsprachigen Bil- coli. Lo strumento utilizzato als auch die Beurteilungsprozesse verbessern. Bilingual Education in Primary l'enseignement plurilingues au niveau tertiaire: In order to do this, we first The question of the conditions, forms, and impact of felici- discuss the issue of publicising organ donation in Switzer- tous dialogue has arisen in the broadest range of academ- land; then we conduct a detailed analysis of the website to ic disciplines in the 20th century.
This book examines such understand the role of the linguistic forms and structures normative theories of discourse in the German-speaking in the communication strategy of the FOPH. This strategy world through the perspective of discursive history and relies on the representation of a public sphere in which or- places them in a broad social and cultural historical con- dinary people express conflicting positions about organ text.
It reveals the history of discourse in the 20th century donation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact Rolle bei der Internationalisierung von Hochschulen. Wir stellen dazu ein neu entwickeltes Kurs- 57 who did not benefit from CST. Positive talk and psychosocial counseling fostered alliance whereas negative talk, biomedical information and pa- issn tient's questions diminished alliance. Patient— clinician alliance is related to specific verbal communica- tion behaviors.
Working alliance is a url key element of patient—physician communication which http: The languages include pidgins, creoles, and contact languages based on English, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and French and languages from Africa, Asia, Aus- tralia, and the Americas. Each map is accompanied by a commentary.
The project is the successor to the success- ful World Atlas of Language Structures and draws on the same linguistic, cartographic, and computing knowledge and skills of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary An- thropology in Leipzig. The Atlas is published alongside a three-volume Survey of Pidgins and Creoles which de- scribes the histories and linguistic characteristics of 71 languages. The books have been designed, edited, and written by the world's leading experts in the field and rep- resent the most systematic and comprehensive guide ever published to the world's pidgins, creoles and mixed lan- guages.
Individually and together the books are a unique resource of outstanding value for linguists of all persua- sions throughout the world. Die Ortsnamen von sicher! In due progetti zurighesi de- Ortsnamenforschung nominati bili in totale 40 insegnanti hanno tenuto le loro lezioni bilingui in 10 scuole professionali. Inoltre, essi evidenziano chiaramente migliori wie kulturgeschichtlich zu erschliessen. Jahrhundert belegten lokalen Besitzer- und Familien- co quanto da quello didattico per poter tenere lezioni bilin- namen.
Auch Personen- materia viene registrato nella pagella finale e visibile ai fu- und Familiennamen gelangten in das Verzeichnis, sofern turi datori di lavoro. So entstand seit dieses be- che a partire dal prossimo anno scolastico ci sia almeno achtliche Nachschlagewerk mit rund 12' Namenbele- una classe bilingue in ogni scuola professionale. A livello gen, die unterschiedlichen Orten zugeordnet werden federale sono state approvate misure di sostegno nel cam- konnten. Non resta che sperare che questa moderna forma di insegnamento si consolidi a lungo isbn termine in tutta la Svizzera.
Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. How do ganization as it is managed by and within larger groups re- people interact in order to be mobile? How do people coor- mains understudied. This paper aims to sketch the dinate the mobility of others? How does mobility feature in systematics of turn-taking practices within political meet- social interaction? In are of increasing interest to scholars across disciplines. It provides cutting-edge re- greements, and political oppositions are also expressed. The analysis also ex- settings as airplanes, cars, traffic control centres, dance amines the methodic and timed mobilization of embodied schools, museums and other public places, and as part of resources and their local accountability, as recognized such activities as instructing, navigating, identifying an and treated as situated by the participants.
Systematic enemy on the battlefield, organising a meeting, playing practices for pre-selecting, announcing and establishing videogames, shopping, performing and dancing. Together, the next speaker, selecting and queuing multiple next these studies highlight features of social interaction, in- speakers, defending speakership in contexts of persistent cluding language, embodied conduct, and spatial and ma- overlaps, and managing confrontational exchanges during terial orientation, for being mobile, for interacting on the the debate are described in detail.
This book is a valuable resource to anyone interested ly brought into being. The paper contributes to con- is displayed, claimed, contested and negotiated in social versation analytic studies interested in multimodality, interaction. More particularly, it focuses on the articula- space and mobility, by showing the relevance of walking for tion between action format, sequential organization, mem- the systematic and situated organization of talk-in-inter- bership categorization and epistemic authority. More particularly, the paper deals with sequential offers an empirical analysis of the way in which knowledge environments in which activity closings are projected, and is distributed and recognized in social gatherings, with a achieved by the participants; it shows that in this position, special focus on guided visits.
Guided visits are a perspic- initiating walking away is a resource that makes closing uous setting for this analysis, since it is an activity in which publicly projectable and recognizable. Moreover, the study the guide displays knowledge in comments and explana- shows how walking away is a negotiated matter, being initi- tions and the guided seeks for knowledge in questions. Finally, the study demonstrates that lenged. While the former are frequently the absence of such a coordination. Likewise, in second position, questions are gen- issn erally answered by the guide, but can also be answered by another person, claiming alternative epistemic rights.
By examining the details of turn and action design in these doi environments, the article shows how they either reproduce The lat- ter case is particularly revealing of the fact that epistemic status and stance are constantly reflexively re elaborated by the participants in social interaction. Within social sciences dealing with social interaction, these ethical issues concern the approach of participants during fieldwork, the recordings of audio—video data, their transcription, and their analy- sis.
This paper offers a respecification in an ethnometh- odological sense of these issues by addressing them in a double perspective: In order to do so, the paper focuses on a particular ethical problem, which has not yet been submitted to analytical scrutiny: Adopting the perspective of conversation analy- sis and ethnomethodology, the paper explores these is- sues through a sequential analysis identifying the particular moments within social interaction in which prob- lems are pointed at by the participants and the way in which they are locally managed by them.
In the con- Languages in the Workplace, Methodology clusion, their theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions are highlighted. Focusing on the multilingual solutions emi- cally elaborated in international professional meetings, we show that the participants orient to a double principle: Body - Language - Communication: An International Handbook on Tessendorf Hrsg: Mondada, Interaction and Mobility.
Being mobile, talking on the move. Space in Language and Linguistics: Geographical, Interactional and Cognitive and Linguistics: Gurevych, en questions, Nr. This is illustrated with example studies for different kinds of linguistic resources. This Histoire de la langue, Politique des langues, Russie toolkit also serves as an interface between existing soft- ware packages and frequently used data formats, and it isbn provides implementations of new and existing algorithms within a homogeneous framework. We then illustrate evaluation metrics on gold standard da- tasets that are provided with the toolkit.
Anmerkungen zum Szenarienansatz und zur Spaces: Le Trait d'union, Vol. Not sur- prisingly, didactic suggestions for teaching GFL at an ad- vanced level are also rare, which leaves teachers of Ger- man in a difficult situation. As advanced learners of German are an important learner group for the Language Centre of the University of Freiburg Switzerland , we felt an urgent need to know more about them. A survey was therefore conducted to collect information about their learning con- text at the bilingual University of Freiburg, the competenc- es they already possess, their motivation to continue learning GFL, and their learning needs.
The results of our survey show that our advanced GFL learner groups are a lot more homogeneous than the literature suggests. Among the characteristics they share are: On the basis of these findings we examine whether didactic principles de- veloped to teach beginning learners of German as a third language L3 are also appropriate for advanced learners. Erst die historisch-kontrastive Perspektive erweist, dass sich drei Pfade systematisieren lassen: The project consists in developing a curriculum for teaching receptive skills in Italian to Le istituzioni promotrici intendono rendere partecipe del French-speaking adults native speakers or with a good progetto pure il Dipartimento dell'educazione, cultura e knowledge of French.
Alcuni contatti sono stati ceptive language skills facilitate effective communicative stabiliti con riscontri positivi. In the case of Italian in Switzerland, http: Dies ist die Aufgabe von DaZ-Kursleitenden. Trotzdem ist das Unterrich- Stallikon ten unter dieser optimalen Voraussetzung eine sehr an- spruchsvolle Arbeit. In this paper, we outline how a take turns in the classroom, which is one of the first places mixed-method approach originally developed to study the where youth have to respect institutional constraints re- newswriting processes of journalists at their workplaces garding their interactional practices.
These constraints, can be applied in translation process research. I aim the translation process. I propose to apply conversa- tion analysis to the study of social representations. By ob- serving the confrontation between the opportunities for participation proposed by the teacher and how students interpret them, I shed light on the recurrent processes of evaluation that participants co-produce and thus social representations of turn-taking which emerge from them.
Ansichten von Akteuren des in: Association for Computational Linguistics Volume 1: Long Jahre Schweizerisches Idiotikon. Juni sprache langue sprache langue English Deutsch verlag publication verlag publication Association for Computational Linguistics Schweizerische Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften erscheinungsort lieu de parution Sofia erscheinungsort lieu de parution Bern fundstelle pages S. Es some previously unavailable in curated datasets. Sein Gegenstand ist bekanntlich vielmehr to mine this rich new data resource. Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol.
English fundstelle pages sprache langue S. Our aim is to determine the linguistic subgroupings of these languages, which we believe will shed light on isbn their prehistory, highlight the linguistic diversity of these groups and which may ultimately inform studies on the cul- tural boundaries of these languages. Puis il la met en relation avec des men werden.
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Linguistische Methoden im Fokus: Eine Auswahl projektbasierter Beispiele [Focusing on linguistic methods: This paper provides an overview of three web- based approaches, i. Examples from specific projects serve to reflect upon these methods, address their potential and limitations, and make a critical apprais- al. Internet-based empirical research produces vast and highly diverse quantities of speaker-based or textual data, presenting linguistic research with new opportuni- ties and challenges.
New procedures are required to make effective use of these resources. One of these methods is "linguistic landscaping", which we use not only in the traditional man- ner, but also with substantial additions to include the com- municative process in which the signs are used. Specific requirements grow out of the representational ently remedied. A real need would arise to ensure comprehension of forms chosen for text production handwriting, keyboard writing.
Writing requires language, understood as the interplay between lexica, syntax and orthography. While orthogra- 3 Writing competency phy is considered a general area of competency, the requirements Here we will attempt to explain the concept of competency from the of word choice and syntax should be considered in a differential article Reading, which includes the competency concept from edu- way according to the reason for writing and the writing task.
In contrast to the linguistic competency concept 3 Text model: So that texts can be successfully decoded by readers, which describes general and inborn language ability, the competency they must be built according to certain structural patterns, accord- concept, which by the way is also used for study on reading PISA, the ing to the targeted communicative function of the text. In order to bring a reader close to a certain experience, activated through concrete problems and situations, is intended effect in connection with the transmission of information, central.
On the basis of such a concept of competency, writing competency or writing ability can be described as follows: In connection with the concept of reading competency, the meaning of b Problem-solving knowledge: Which methods of obtaining knowl- writing competency can be sketched by means of the key words used edge does the area of requirements in question demand? Which procedures and routines does this particular area require?
Writing competency is an important prerequisite for par- ticipation in communication and the exchange of information. Different writing strategies are used for guiding text production ac- 3 Developmental ability in the information society: Writers have cording to writing task, targeted genre and writer type.
These will be mastery of an ability that is central to learning. Writing strategies are mental programs for directing text production. In contrast to the current state of research on the concept of reading Writers adopt above all those writing strategies that suit the way they competency, the dialog surrounding the concept of writing competen- deal with information learning style.
Even writing strategies that are cy has just begun. If the assignment required gathering peer feedback, they would fer to write straight off the bat rather than plan the intended text in only get it shortly before the due date in order to reduce revisions on detail and create a draft of it. During the course of the writing proc- the micro level correct language or be unable to do it for reasons of ess, several different drafts may be written from which finally a text time.
When such people are preferred writing strategy. For individual promotion of writing, the following three tools are pre- sented: They consult with peers and teaching staff and rework their This didactic tool has at its center the use of writing as a means of structural ideas. Writing as a reflective praxis includes the documenta- ready in their mind. Any problems in text production are as reflection that is attained by writers in text production or readers with little reflected upon as attrition losses in the current writing behavior.
Through targeted ques- tioning in order to understand the text in question better, peer read- A few examples of practical application of this tool: In a working journal or forum, questions, opinions and 5. Specific feedback Writing tutoring is the individual monitoring of writers in all phases of can be collected or given, and both can again be processed personally text production, often on an extra-curricular basis, by trained student in the journal. In a e- portfolio the results of the work process can be tutors. In this way, writing tutoring becomes involved in their activity presented, the quality of the performance is analyzed with a should-is more intensely than text feedback between peers, but not as much as comparison and evaluated according to criteria agreed to beforehand.
The latter involves a long-term change of individual Consequences for further profiling of writing behavior are formulated. These results can be presented in a so-called portfolio market to not only the learning group and the teaching staff, but also to potential In writing tutoring, the short-term optimization of current writing be- readers of the reflected writing work for example, representatives of havior and the further development of writing ability of the person vocational education for application portfolios. At the same time, the qualification of the text in question is attained.
Writers should gain knowledge and skills 5. The responsibil- understood as a part of writing as a reflective praxis, here the situ- ity for editorial decisions remains in this way with the person seeking ated aspect of text feedback will be highlighted: Reflexive Praxis — bildungspolitischer Papiertiger, Zankapfel it can be seen that the number of professions that have reading and im Berufsfeld oder didaktische Herausforderung? Neue Lernkultur — neue Leistungskultur. In this context you can also view the PISA study: Schreibberatung in der Schule. Informationen zur Deutschdidaktik ide.
Meanwhile, we have become more conscious of the fact that the ac- Ehlich, Konrad Text und sprachliches Handeln.
Assmann, Aleida et al. Situiertes Lernen in mul- at an institute of higher learning in particular are confronted with quite timedialen Lernumgebungen.
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Information a few new types of texts, and study is more consistently geared to und Lernen mit Multimedia und Internet. Psychologie des Wissens- develop new reading strategies, not least of all in handling the difficul- erwerbs. Schreiben als mentaler und sprachlicher Prozess. In this sense, institutes of higher learning as well as their instructors In: Lesen — ein Grundlagentext. It is worth bringing clarity to these concepts, precisely if one is to speak of promoting reading: These come up in discussion: In the individual sections, we will highlight important phrases in blue boxes.
In addition, we will give references to the actual glossary in 4 Metacognition and monitoring: So that a flexible processing ad- red boxes set below: This basic text will serve thus not only for ticular situation and requirements. Confident readers build on explication of the main points, but can also be read as an introduc- their ability to reconsider their process while they are reading tion to the glossary of reading. It makes it easier to manufacture context wi- At the end of this basic text, you will find references to literature that thin a text and to synthesize the text information in a broader we have consulted and to further sources that we have used in par- context of meaning.
General love of reading, particular thematic interests, expectations and intentions influence the choice of 1 What does it mean to read? These in turn guide the reading or construc- Reading assumes first of all the ability to decipher words and phrases tion process. Meanings cannot however predictors. What role, for example, prior knowledge plays precisely simply be read; they must rather be manufactured.
Out of this effort of The opinion that reading is to be understood as an active construc- thinking and combining comes comprehension. Comprehension work tion process assumes a certain notion about texts: Reading is an active construction and comprehension process. They allow an How, then, should we imagine the interplay between the reader and adequate grasp of the system of writing and new information the material text? A precondition for successful see Figure 1. And if you additionally know that this is an alphabetic script and how to read the individual characters, then you can also construct a cognitive text in your mind.
This is — as shown — fundamentally dependent on your prior knowledge and on your comprehension work. Texts are created and are always read in concrete situations — that is, texts are always embedded in certain situations. In order to be able to interpret a material text, several conditions must be met: In addition, one needs lin- guistic knowledge, world knowledge, genre knowledge, etc. Figure 4 Also to this point a small example: The following is also possible, however: Then you realize that a role: For you, this example probably looks like something graphic or a kind of doodling, but you are reasonably sure it is no text.
This is because you cannot identify any characters. Figure 7 If you consider reading according to this diagram, it becomes clear that several partial skills and competencies are interacting. Once again, put differently: One and the same reader can read a material text in different read- 3 Reading competency ing situations and with different reading objectives: When one focuses such a competency idea on reading, reading com- petency can be defined as follows: Reading competency is defined as reading as well as comprehending different texts and thus being able to solve the tasks which a text world presents.
The importance of ation form a fragile equilibrium. For those beginning college, the being able to read is thus threefold and can be expressed as follows: In the throat, where else. Guess tho- Thus the functions of reading competency have now been identified, se with no clue. Already tried, everything already tried. He stays but not yet its hallmarks.
Reading actually embraces an entire bundle three days. Global coherence or global context refers to the comprehension of the complete text and synthesis into already extant knowledge dimensions of reading competency contexts. Similar to motivation are the emotions, which ac- company and intensify reading, inescapable partial aspects of What is meant by these five dimensions of reading competency will be reading as cultural praxis. What is meant to some extent is that simply sketched here briefly with the use of a few examples: These aspects have up to 1 Motivation: To be motivated is not only a precondition for reading, but is itself a piece of reading competency.
From time to time letters from outraged readers are printed in newspapers which announce that they will cancel their Example: We have probably all had the experience that learning a subscription because they are in complete disagreement with the foreign language is connected with great profit. Reading an origi- content of an article. Such letters can be interpreted to mean that nal text in the foreign language can in this regard be an important goal. How- ever, they must be able to be used flexibly by the reader, that is: Further, reflecting on adapted to the situation and its challenges.
Good readers have different reading strategies at their disposal, and they are able to implement them according to the situation or need. Reading strategies are thus also as well as penetrating it in new ways. Not least of all, this di- always embedded in concrete situations. Further, it can be demon- mension involves tolerance for other interpretations and negoti- strated that good readers mainly use reading strategies for monitoring ating a consensus based on the meanings. The more practiced they are in do- Example: Exchanges about what one has read can often be very ing so, the more automatically the corresponding processes run.
Certain reading exchange are not always possible or sometimes just not frequent strategies are in fact often not used until high school or even during enough: Nevertheless, in particular in colleges of applied sci- ized form of exchange. Here however it is among other things complete bundle of abilities partial competencies ; these are used in overlooked that students in their studies there are going to be con- different proportions, depending on what type of text is being read.
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However, training that is not em- tencies just described must be activated, each in its own way. Reading bedded in meaningful situations will not lead to the desired outcome: Reading and writing strategies can be seen as a special group or sub- The promotion of reading must also offer reading training for advanced category of learning strategies: What a comprehensive promotion of read- use of learning strategies and pure knowledge about them.
Regard- ing for advanced readers can look like will be outlined in the next ing reading, one can apply what follows: However, author readings too can have their place at college; Considering the different challenges that current text offerings present if this is connected with non-fiction texts, it is also conceivable that to recipients, reading must be supported thoroughly in different ways. The following three approaches have been maintained: Like reading activity late and stabilize the practice of reading in children, youth and adults.
However, in contrast with following: With this aspect inaccessible texts accessible and of gradually unlocking literary sym- it is less important what is read in each situation — reading promotion bols. Comprehending literature is a process that readers to a large requires the greatest possible tolerance for the preferences of the extent shape themselves; schools and colleges should in this support readers. However, what is important is that one reads, that enough them through an inspiring selection of works and with course-related room is given for communication in dealing with a text and that an offerings aids to understanding.
They meet this task in these ways, for example: Precisely college students who are still at the beginning through reading, partly through listening. They can give each other tips, and in be included in courses. In a way similar to racters, their feelings, motives and actions. Corresponding lear- that of literary salons, reading groups can be included in an instruc- ning steps can be made not only in direct dealings with literary tional concept: Most of them also do not know where to start with benefit. The goal is, however, not to read an entire literary canon in a summaries. If one introduces summarization techniques when, for ex- short period of time.
The latter would present too great a challenge to ample, there is a concrete preparation for a test, students will have teachers and learners. Among other 6 Literature and source references things, this involves the perception and processing of text elements Artelt, Cordula et al.
Learners will then be able to Leser und Leseverhalten heute — Sozialwissenschaftliche techniques necessary to do this and in particular the helpful reading strategies appropriate to the particular case. Reading techniques and Buchlese r forschung. Edited by Philippe Hertig viduals. Important training elements are particularly and Philipp Notter.
Anforderungen und Einflussfak- view of a text orientation in the text ; toren bei Sach- und Informationstexten. Norbert Groeben and Bettina Hurrel- mann ed. Lesekompetenz — Bedingungen, Dimensionen, Funktionen. Praxis Deutsch , pp. Prototypische Merkmale der Lesekompetenz. Tasks of this nature must be embedded in the most meaningful situa- Norbert Groeben and Bettina Hurrelmann ed.
Lesekompetenz — Bedingungen, tion possible. If the students are, in addition, asked to summarize all Dimensionen, Funktionen. Was ist ein Text? Motivationale Grundlagen der Lesekom- petenz. Peter Eisenberg and Peter Klotz ed. Sprache gebrauchen — Sprachwissen erwerben. Richter, Tobias and Christmann, Ursula Prozessebenen und interindividuelle Unterschiede.
Norbert Groeben and Bettina Hurrelmann ed. Das kann zum einen durch nationale und Lesen und Schreiben regt an zum Nachahmen und Mitmachen, sodass internationale Workshops geschehen, in deren Rahmen das Anliegen der Kreis der Kenner Bertolt Brecht sich langfristig erweitern kann. Parallel zu den o. Leiter des Comenius 2.
Related Lektürewertung in Bezug auf die Lesesozialisation in der Hauptschule (German Edition)
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