Why do the Japanese versions of albulms always seem to have bonus tracks not available in North America? Also, why do the Japanese get this and we don't? I find that extra tracks tend to be the case with most imports, not just japanese ones, and I'm pretty sure andrew cooke is right on the money. According to a friend who runs a small record label that occasionally does business in Japan: The extra tracks are there to provide an incentive for buying the domestic version. Without the extra tracks, Japanese retailers are reluctant to sell the CDs knowing that a large portion of the potential purchasers will simply be importing the product.
Here in the UK some record labels will put extra tracks on CD's to encourage people not to buy cheap imports from America or Asia.
I doubt this is the case in Japan posted by dodgygeezer at 2: Hiroshima on August 8th, focusing on them as individuals Moreover, recognition of the humanity of Japanese-Americans automatically calls attention to Japanese nationals, since immigrants were barred from becoming U. Most of them retained Japanese citizenship not because of loyalty to Japan but because of racist discrimination.
Moreover, some American citizens of Japanese descent were trapped in Japan during the war, many of them in Hiroshima. They were treated as enemies by both the American and Japanese governments. These issues all are reflected in the permanent exhibit and collection of personal memories of the war at the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles.
Building on the pioneering work of John W. Dower in War Without Mercy, many Americans now recognize that racism was a significant factor in both American and Japanese conduct during the war. Cartoon by David Low on display at the National D-Day Museum Further, simply documenting the troubling history of global genocide, war crimes, state terrorism, and systematic cruelty itself encourages comparative thinking, particularly about instruments of mass death such as the atomic bombs. The process of defining and explaining subjects necessarily involves abstraction and therefore a template for comparison.
If bombing civilians at Guernica or Shanghai was wrong, how exactly were Nagasaki and Hiroshima different? One may conclude that they were, but simply going through the mental exercise establishes criteria for comparison and judgment. National Historic Site in Atlanta. Indeed, people come to look at the Enola Gay airplane at the National Air and Space Museum because they already see it as a complex symbol of many things. Yet standing there in the shadows of the Enola Gay , there was profound acknowledgment that this airplane had ushered in the atomic age and the threat of unparalleled destruction.
If, as museum professionals now emphasize, visitors brings their own meaning to exhibits, display of the Enola Gay will forever provide an invitation to debate the moral and strategic legitimacy of the use of the bomb in August even though the exhibit itself attempts to assert only one point of view. As museum professionals now understand, precisely because those concerns are invoked but not addressed by the presenters of the airplane, visitors will feel their absence and raise them over and over again.
Notes  Asahi News Oct. Accessed May 27, Accessed June 22, Kokuritsu senso memoriaru o toshite Tokyo, , This exhibit is now only on line. Ritual and Memory, Japan Focus, June 3, Posted at Japan Focus on July 20, Akiko Takenaka teaches architectural history and theory in the Department of the History of Art at the University of Michigan.
She is currently working on a book manuscript on the history and politics of Yasukuni Shrine tentatively titled Yasukuni: The 62nd anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima occurs today, August 6, , bringing with it thousands of commemoration ceremonies in cities and towns around the world. Such events have become part and parcel of the nuclear era, and include the lighting and floating of lanterns in memory of the dead, silent vigils, religious observances, the chalking of human "shadows" on the ground, readings of John Hersey's Hiroshima , and leafletting.
As touching as these ceremonies and activities sometimes are, have they served any practical purpose? A brief survey indicates that they have. Fittingly, these ventures began in Hiroshima. The following August, a broader coalition of Hiroshima-based organizations sponsored a citywide peace festival. At the event, which drew 10, people to a public park, a message was read by the U. Speaking at the same ceremonies, Hiroshima's new mayor, Hamai Shinzo , organized prayers against the future employment of nuclear weapons and issued a Peace Declaration, calling on the world to rid itself of war.
As demonstrations memorializing the atomic bombings became regular events in Hiroshima, they began to spread to other countries. In , the Reverend Tanimoto Kiyoshi , a Methodist minister portrayed in Hersey's Hiroshima , initiated a campaign to have nations around the world draw upon August 6 as World Peace Day.
That year, citizens in twenty countries responded to his call, holding prayer meetings and other public gatherings on Hiroshima Day. Tanimoto had a particular impact in the United States, where--sponsored by the Board of Missions of the Methodist Church--he toured during a substantial part of and , garnering support from pacifist and religious groups for a Hiroshima peace center. In , it opened in Hiroshima, where it arranged for the "moral adoption" of atomic bomb orphans by Americans and undertook welfare services for other victims of the atomic attack.
Cousins visited Japan in for the August 6 memorial ceremony, and returned to the United States with a Hiroshima Peace Petition, signed by , residents of that city. From the start, then, there were two themes highlighted by the Hiroshima Day ceremonies which have continued for more than six decades. The first was that nuclear war was such an abomination that it should never be waged again.
The second was that the development of nuclear weapons brought war itself into question; or, as some have phrased it, in the nuclear age there is no alternative to peace. Over the ensuing decades, peace groups have hammered away at these two themes--and with some success. Rather remarkably, they have created mass movements that have played a key role in curbing the nuclear arms race and in preventing the waging of nuclear war. This development is unique in human history, for when have governments--which have waged war for as long as there have been competing territories--pulled back from utilizing its most devastating forms and exercised restrain in using its most destructive implements?
Of course, peace groups have been less successful in bringing an end to war itself. And yet, there are signs here, too, that some progress has been made.
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A United Nations, a European Union, and other viable international organizations have become vital fixtures of the modern world. Not only has the planet not erupted into a third world war since , but--as numerous scholarly studies have shown--in the last two decades the level of international violence has declined significantly. This is why the Bush administration, with its stubborn penchant for military victory, seems so out of touch with the rest of the world, and even with the American public. Of course, for anyone concerned with building a sane and secure world, these developments, while heartening, are not sufficient.
Why have the Hiroshima-based arguments for ridding the world of nuclear war and war itself not had a greater impact? One reason is that, over the course of thousands of years, governments have had the prerogative of waging war and, in this connection, employing whatever weapons they want. The "great powers," especially, do not look forward to surrendering this prerogative. In addition, the public is occasionally lured into support for particular wars thanks to deception, nationalism, and what appear to be and sometimes are genuine threats to their security.
Moreover, for understandable reasons, many members of the public would prefer not to think too much about nuclear war i. In this context, Hiroshima Day events really do matter. They help break into the consciousness of rulers and ruled alike, telling them that nuclear war is not acceptable. Such events also remind them that, in the modern world, war itself is an anachronism--a deadly habit that must be overcome. His latest book, co-edited with Glen H.
Stassen, is Peace Action: Past, Present, and Future Paradigm Publishers. He wrote this article for History News Network. War, Media, and Militarization . The fate of the navy and of the nation itself hung in the balance. The Imperial navy fought valiantly against a technologically superior foe but was ultimately destroyed. This process, what I call the militarization of Japanese society, is the subject of my paper. Set amid a world of endemic struggle among nations and races, featuring equal doses of stout hearts, foreign predation, heroic sacrifice, and amazing new technologies, these stories disclose a particularly martial understanding of modernity defined by science, progress, competition and, above all, struggle.
In all this, Japanese sentiments were remarkably similar to those of their Euro-American counterparts. The stories of Miyazaki and other Japanese writers exhibited distinct features drawn from Japanese history and culture but these, too, need to be understood as products of the same modernity, driven by the emergent technologies of mass production and consumption and fueled by seemingly unbounded science and geopolitical insecurity. Thus, Japanese future war fiction must be grounded in this historical context and read as a case study or example of a modern nation embracing a common body of ideas driven in large measure by the growth and development of mass media.
Moving beyond the confines of the family, immediate community, and schoolhouse to the public spaces of print media, we can see the power the adult world has, in its broadest sense, in shaping and defining that of the child. Even when not overtly didactic, print media created compelling role models for girls and boys, much of which focused heavily on a manly, martial ethos. One consequence of this was a chillingly social Darwinistic vision of the early 20 th century world order, one grounded in the zero-sum logic of grow or die, with a distinctive sense of Japanese particularism as its saviour.
Nichibei miraisen is an excellent place to begin an inquiry into the nexus of media and militarization in early 20 th century Japan. As Japanese media moved into the first decades of the twentieth century, surging populations in the cities and higher literacy rates, especially among the relatively poor and the rural, created vast new potential markets for all types of visual materials.
By the s, print media, although centring on the metropolises of Tokyo and Osaka , had penetrated virtually every corner of the archipelago. Nichibei miraisen, republished with new artworks in in an electronic format. By , Kodansha claimed to be printing , copies of Shonen kurabu monthly, selling about , The great struggle of hot-blooded youth!
Riding the wave of public dissatisfaction about the Washington Treaty to great advantage, Miyazaki drew on the common practice of using contemporary political events as the subtext for fiction. Now, children could see this too. What a brave sight! Not only have the self-aggrandizing wealthy and the self-promoting politicians tried to hinder the project at every turn but the eight new ships are not even sufficient in number and strength to counter the immense power of the US.
The adventure now unfolds rapidly as the entire fleet slips its moorings under the cover of darkness and vanishes. Outbreak of US-Japan War! Combined Fleet Departs Sasebo! How will the Imperial Navy fair against the military might of the United States? And what is the mysterious plan Admiral Nango and Takuji have set in motion? Episode two treats readers with a brief lecture on modern international relations before turning to the battle. Still remaining in the fictional framework of future war, Miyazaki explains that Japan owes a great debt to Commodore Perry for opening the country in the 19 th century, even though he acknowledges there were also American forces at work to turn Japan into a vassal state.
Since then, however, America has treated Japanese immigrants terribly, attempted to wrest control of Yap from Japan, and generally interfered throughout the Nanyo. Quickly the two forces close and the battle erupts with earsplitting thunder. After chasing off the enemy while suffering only minor damage, the Japanese navy steams toward Olongapo in the Philippines where the main force of the American navy awaits.
There, the battle resumes with a vengeance, this time on the land and the sea, as , Japanese troops storm Manila. At the very moment of victory, however, ten new American ships and dozens of planes, fresh from their berth in Hawaii , appear on the horizon and the weary Japanese fleet girds itself for yet another battle. Drawing on its last reserves of strength and courage, the hachi hachi kantai obliterates the Hawaii fleet, but is itself destroyed in the process.
Just as it seems the war will turn into one of attrition, the surviving sailors get word that the US Atlantic fleet has already passed through the Panama Canal. Its arrival spells doom for the entire nation now that it has no navy with which to defend itself. Most of the men are missing soldiers from the Russo-Japanese War or from the warship Unebi that mysteriously vanished without a trace in the South China Sea en route to Japan from France in Also on the island is the young Takuji from the first episode.
Takuji is eager to execute the plan but Azuma has restrained him at every turn to this point, arguing that the time was not right. Azuma moves into action. Appointing the astonished Takuji commander, Azuma and Takuji lead a dozen newly designed submarines, their secret weapon, to hunt down the US Fleet in the stormy Pacific. Suddenly, ships throughout the fleet are sinking. The Americans panic and begin firing wildly in all directions. Will Takuji be saved? The final episode finds Takuji clinging to a piece of flotsam, fortuitously given him by another adrift Japanese sailor just before a giant wave separates them.
The selflessness of the sailor is rewarded as the search succeeds and Takuji is saved. Readers never learn the fate of that valiant sailor. After being taken aboard ship, Takuji learns that the other half of the squadron has completely destroyed the enemy and saved the nation. Takuji utters quiet thanks and the crew rejoices. Across the Pacific, the Americans react with shock and anger on hearing the news. Some allege that Japan must have violated the laws of naval warfare but no evidence is found to support this.
In Japan , the entire nation — male and female, young and old — dance for joy. Meiji Antecedents of Future War. This abridged version of Nichibei highlights a number of themes common to the war-as-entertainment genre, all of which trace their roots back to earlier practices. In fact, they did not need Thucydides and Spencer to tell them what was happening before their very eyes.
Miyazaki reflected this worldview clearly, both in Nichibei and in his postscript where he addressed his young readers directly: Do not expect that mysterious sea snakes will always appear to save the nation. Had they not done so at that time, Japan , the shining light of the East, the Oyashima of years of tradition, would have been destroyed… Study hard literary [ bun ] and military [ bu ] affairs.
Exert yourselves to the utmost for the sake of the nation kokka no tame ni. The sea snakes were pure fiction. They did not exist in the great power politics of the early 20 th century where martial, manly values were essential for national survival. Sounding like a latter-day Yoshida Shoin with his injunction to put aside childish things and go forth as men of high purpose, Miyazaki charged his young readers with the weighty responsibility of defending the realm from the deadly combination of vacillating leaders and dangerous foreign enemies.
The pedigree of these ideas dated back to the heady days of nation building in the Meiji era. Here, too, fiction played a central role. Although Yano wrote Ukishiro for an adult audience, later generations of children it seems read the story with great enthusiasm. When Captain Sakura addresses his men early in the story, he says:. Thus, a stout heart was not enough. The men in Ukishiro had that in spades but they also had fantastic weapons like raiyaku , a new explosive developed by a Japanese scientist that could destroy entire islands.
The original story, set in Edo at the end of the Muromachi era in mid th century, was a didactic tale about the power of morality and the triumph of virtue. Replete with sacrifice, heroism, and miracles, Nanso centred on the attempts of Satomi Yoshizane, an actual historical figure, to restore his family name to its former glory. The eight dogs in the title represented the eight cardinal virtues of Confucianism and through their intervention virtue triumphed over vice, allowing Satomi to overcome enormous obstacles and rehabilitate his family name.
The didacticism and morality of the original story remained. Looking back more than one hundred years, it is possible to see a prophetic strain in Shin hakken den. It certainly seemed to have anticipated the wildly popular manga series Boken dankichi of the s and s, a cartoon serial depicting the heroic South Sea adventures of its protagonist by the same name. Nanso Satomi Hakkenden, the original first print. In its modern incarnation, the martial imperative first intersected with the moral imperative of kanzen choaku with the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in On the cover of the first issue were two illustrations: The actual existence of these past heroes and whether they had done what the stories claimed they did matters less in a practical and analytical sense than does the process by which these heroes were used to construct and continually reinforce a seamless web of continuity with the past.
This was what was actually invented. Whatever else they thought about the war, media publishers and contributors discovered that war and patriotism paid. Published continuously from to , and then in different variations and with some interruptions until , Shonen sekai educated and entertained at least two generations of Japanese children. As they approach the River Styx Sanzu no kawa , Captain Matsuzaki overhears and surprises them, at which point they flee across the river in fear.
Laughing heartily, Captain Matsuzaki muses that nothing can be done for them and decides to head for heaven. The deification of Captain Matsuzaki was quickly followed by other heroes from both the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars like the resolute Mitsushima Kan and the indomitable bugler Kikuchi Kohei, whose stories would be told and retold until the end of the Pacific War. These stories, intermingling with the pantheon of past martial heroes, became enormously popular with both boys and girls, leading publishers to create an entire genre of serialized historical novels published along side of the adventure novels, patriotic novels, and war adventures.
While these stories ranged across the entire corpus of Japanese literature, including romance, tales of selfless devotion and sacrificial death tended to predominate. Just before Japanese troops invade Manila , Lt. Commander Onuki is ordered to destroy an American gun emplacement. Realizing his mission is complete, Onuki takes down the Rising Sun Flag and, hearing the approach of more enemy troops, taunts them: The sword sliced through his flesh as he pulled it across his body.
Grasping his beloved flag, he then stuffed it into the gaping wound he had just made.
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That fine fellow died a brave and unparalleled death. When the American troops arrived they froze in terror at the sight. Onuki Committing seppuku  Reproduction credit: This, too, was pioneered by Shonen sekai during the Sino-Japanese War. The hero of the story is nine-year old Matsue Chiyodai whose father served as a First Lieutenant on the battleship Chiyoda, the same ship on from which Kunikida Doppo reported the war. On a particularly stormy day, Chiyodai spies a ship floundering in rough seas.
He immediately commandeers a small boat and recruits a group of seamen to affect a rescue. Their efforts succeed but on the way back to shore Chiyodai falls into the sea and is lost. The story does not end there, however, as Chiyodai is somehow then taken captive on a Chinese ship and brought to the Palace of the Sea God where he meets a young princess. Two points are noteworthy here. The second point relates to the centrality of children as the main protagonists of the stories. Sometimes they were depicted sacrificing and dying for their country, as with young Chiyodai.
Rather than being filled with remorse and sadness, Ichiro swells with pride knowing that his father and uncle have died glorious deaths. Takuji, the child warrior Reproduction Credit: In depicting the deaths of children or adults as acts to be glorified and praised, the media was not alone.
Textbooks also immortalized and beautified death in war. Most commonly this was portrayed through the protagonist dying happily with a smile on his lips. The manner in which the Sino-Japanese War was fictionalized and presented as entertainment for children became the prototype for constructing a manly, martial ethos throughout the first half of the 20 th century. Those who are old enough can hardly forget the television images on the nightly news that contributed significantly to the anti-war movement emerging at the same time.
The Japanese public, hungry for news of heroism, sacrifice, or victory, consumed their reports eagerly. The Sino-Japanese War should thus be seen as the first major international media event in modern Japanese history with consumer and producer alike, including Shonen sekai , all contributing to the wave of pro-war sentiment that swept Japan at this time. Tales of war and patriotism proved highly profitable throughout the world of print media.
He exerted a profound influence on Miyazaki and contemporaries like Abu Tempu, Hirata Gensaku, and Yamanaka Minetaro, creating the basic format for many kinds of future war and adventure stories. Kaitei gunkan was actually part of a six-novel series published between and , all of which took as their point of departure Japanese passivity in the face of predatory foreign imperialism.
Kaitei gunkan traces the exploits of a disgruntled former naval officer Captain Sakuragi and his hardy band of patriots who build a new submarine battleship on a secret island. The ship, the denkopan is submersible, capable of flight and is armed with futuristic torpedoes and a new ramming technology. Throughout the series, Sakuragi and his men battle the Russians, the French and the English, destroying them all. In late Meiji this kind of binary thinking created a compellingly stark portrait of the international world that lent apparent truth to the national imperative of grow or die.
Oshikawa revealed this in a non-fiction essay in Boken sekai Adventure World a Hakubunkan publication he helped to found and edit. He granted that Americans were not devoid of bravery, mentioning Roosevelt approvingly and calling on American youth to eschew wealth for valour.
Oshikawa then went on to lament the decline of bushido damashii since the Russo-Japanese War, singling out excessive pride, conceit, socialism and naturalism as the principle domestic evils. The youth of Japan , he said, were being corrupted with the licentiousness of naturalistic literature and the destructive effects of socialism on the national polity. The message was clear: The world was a dangerous place where only the strong and the resolute survive. Japan must become strong and grow, or die. The idea of war helping to drive the popularization of mass media in early 20 th century Japan should be familiar to those of us who have grown up in North America since The nexus of victorious and vicarious war World War II and the cold war and electronic media have created an irresistible and inexhaustible wellspring of material from which to construct war adventures as entertainment.
In Meiji Japan a similar dynamic emerged only with print media leading the way.
In both cases, war was the catalyst rather than the cause. It created the opportunity for profit and patriotism to unite in a self-sustaining process fed by perceived international crisis and by war itself — real and imagined. Of course men such as Oshikawa and Miyazaki would likely have been outraged at the suggestion that they were motivated by gain. In this war was central.
Martiality in America and Japan. As Oshikawa drew on Yano and Iwaya and then in turn influenced Miyazaki , Abu, and others, so too did the wave of foreign narratives flooding Japan at this time influence the thinking of many aspiring Japanese writers. The works of both men had a profound impact on a wide range of writers including Yano, Oshikawa and Miyazaki. Lea wrote The Valor of Ignorance to shake Americans out of their complacency and to convince them that the romantic ideal of republican martial virtue expressed in the militia was hopelessly out of date.
But his book also had a profound impact on men like Oshikawa and Miyazaki because it articulated a theoretical position that aligned precisely with how the world actually operated in their eyes. In this we can glimpse a kind of adult crisis consciousness about the instability of the present and an implicit fear about an indeterminate future, especially if the children of the present fail to safeguard the nation of the future. Militarization, Media, and Mirrors. While this is essentially a Japanese story, the process by which it unfolded and the ideology that animated it were by no means unique to Japan.
Virtually all modern industrial nations trace their origins back to the crucible of war or revolution, while their inhabitants derive a significant portion of their identities as citizens or subjects from these events and their remembrances. The experiences of the Japanese people must be understood comparatively as part of a more widespread modern process whereby national identities were constructed through the mass production and consumption of real and imagined war.
Herein lay the power of the print media. War seems to be as old as humanity itself, as are the stories of martial glory and sacrifice that naturally accompany its prosecution. But only with the creation of mass forms of culture like print media have human societies been able to create and disseminate information, including stories of war, on such a massive scale. And it is the sheer scale of production and consumption that separates the modern from all other historical eras. Future war was a particularly powerful vehicle in this process, creating a seamless continuity over time that grounded children of the present in a shared martial past while preparing them for an adult future in which they would become the saviors.
Japanese future war reinforced the ideological triad of military preparedness, eternal vigilance, and sacrificial death as the key components of modern Japanese nationalism, one that was heavily gendered in favour of the martial and the manly. Until World War II a wide range of individuals and groups throughout the industrializing world preached the gospel of militarism and militarization, often in the stated interests of preserving peace.
Since militarism and militarization have understandably taken on a more pejorative tone, despite the fact that the gospel of military preparedness was never more systematically spread than during the cold war: In the last couple of decades, scholars and activists have begun to reexamine and refine the relationship between militarism and militarization, usually from a feminist perspective. Militarization, by contrast is a sociopolitical process… by which the roots of militarism are driven deep down into the soil of a society. They also demonstrate the utility of seeing both ideology and process through feminist lenses.
The work of these scholars alerts us to dangers in our own world, but their comments also apply equally to the world of prewar Japan and, indeed, much of the modern world from the 19 th century onward when urban, industrial life appeared to be undermining national and racial vitality. This fear was so menacing because it began with an a priori assumption of human nature as inherently war-like and of the natural world as a site of struggle where only the strong survived.
There were no other options. In Japan where such stories more specifically targeted children, they left a weighty legacy for their young readers in whose hands the final decision would later be worked out. Men like Miyazaki and Oshikawa revealed this attitude clearly when talking of the dangers posed by the great powers.
The a priori explained why war occurred and why all Japanese had to prepare for that eventuality. It was then through preparation that Japanese society became militarized. This meant not only creating larger armies and more powerful weapons through the application of science, but also curbing luxury and over-consumption, bending industrial activity to the will of military necessity, and guarding against slippage in gender roles.
This last category is particularly important because in Japan as elsewhere the core values of militarism have historically been exclusively masculine and martial, cohering around the concepts of loyalty, sacrifice, and the shared. In prewar Japanese war adventures there were many girl heroes but few died and never in battle. This form of gendered nationalism carried right through to the last desperate days of the Pacific War, by which time everyone was expected to die.
Still, echoes of the prewar division of gender based on who died in battle remained as late as Either way, they do reveal a deeply gendered conception of war and death, one that was largely monopolized by males. As Geyer and Enloe have noted militarization occurs wherever a class, caste, or other social group reserves for itself the right and responsibility to use violence. Monopolizing the right to use violence is a core component of the classic definition of the state, dating back at least to Max Weber.
Men like Iwaya, Oshikawa, and Miyazaki constructed a present and future world for children through vicarious war, skillfully blurring the lines between fact, fiction, and fantasy. Marx himself recognized this tendency fifty years earlier, although in an entirely different context. His commentary on this phenomenon is worth quoting at length:. Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given, and transmitted from the past.
The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living. And just when men seem engaged in revolutionizing themselves and things, in creating something entirely new For Marx, this tendency was the bane of human existence, drawing us into the past at the very moment when we should be breaking with that past in an effort to construct a new future.
They showed no desire to break with the past but incorporated it into their present to construct a common identity that would provide a bulwark against rampant capitalism, socialism, and feminism, indeed, against modernity itself. At the same time, these men seemed to be unaware of a supreme irony: In attempting to make this comparison, I am reminded of the words of Helen Mears who suggested many years ago that Japan , in addition to our studying it for its own sake, can be a mirror in which we can see our own reflection.
He wrote this article for Japan Focus. Posted on September 22, Miyazaki also wrote many stories for children under the penname Shirane Ryobu. Hereafter referred to as Nichibei. To date, I have uncovered more than 30 future war stories written between and , almost all of which were written for children.
This phrase comes from the title of I. The best discussion of this subject is I. Clarke, Voices Prophesying War: Future Wars, , Oxford University Press, For a more American focus on the same subject, see H. Bruce Franklin, War Stars: Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Yamada continues to make movies to this day.
He once served as president of the Directors Guild of Japan, and is currently a guest professor of Rits He began his career in television and has since directed more than a dozen feature films, including Nobody Knows , Still Walking , and After the Storm Career Before embarking on a career as a film director, Kore-eda worked as an assistant director on documentaries for television.
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He eventually transitioned into directing, and directed his first television documentary, Lessons from a Calf, in He directed several other documentary films thereafter. The city is often called Owari-Ichinomiya to avoid confusion with another Ichinomiya now part of the city of Toyokawa. The total area was Geography Ichinomiya is situated in western Aichi Prefecture, bordered by Gifu Prefecture to the west.
In case of this city, it was Masumida Shrine of Owari Province. Ichinomiya developed as a monzen-machi from the Heian period. The modern town of Ichinomiya was founded with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, It was raised to city status on September He is best known for his part in creating the popular anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion. His style has become defined by his incorporation of postmodernism and the extensive portrayal of characters' thoughts and emotions, often through unconventional scenes presenting the mental deconstruction of those characters.
In , he portrayed the villain Shishio Makoto in the live action Rurouni Kenshin films. The name and gender of their child is unknown.go
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The Last Name, films based on the manga of the same name. He also has a cameo appearance in L: Career The , Fuji TV summer drama Hanazakari no Kimitachi e, controversial in its gender-bending nature, was perhaps Ikuta's biggest break in Japanese Entertainment. His role as the silent but constant observer th He works on both anime and tokusatsu projects.
A highly talented artist, he worked on many of their early anime and tokusatsu productions, doing storyboarding as well as special effects. Soon, he got to help out special effects director Teruyoshi Nakano as an uncredited assistant for The Return of Godzilla In , at the age of 13, she began her Nicola modelling career and was very well received as a Nicola model, having set a record for appearing on cover for 15 times.
A fellow Nicola model Ayako Enomoto gave her the popular nickname "Gakky. In , she decided to put her Nicola career on hold and expand her career path into gravure and acting, and she also appeared in variety shows and commercials, with her Pocky commercials being the most popular. A year later, she offic She is managed by Stardust Promotion. Biography Acting career Shibasaki debuted in , when she portrayed the cold and deadly Mitsuko Souma in the cult classic Battle Royale.
Her acting career took off with this film and also raised her profile across East Asia. Shibasaki has worked in numerous television shows, movies and commercials. In , Shibasaki made her "Hollywood debut" in 47 Ronin, a Keanu Reeves-led adaptation of the famous Chushingura story of samurai loyalty and revenge.
The film is billed as the first e Twenty-one years later, despite being a relative latecomer to the silver screen, the year-old Kabuki actor was in his first film, Ping Pong , in which he portrayed a skin-headed, demonically intense table-tennis champion nicknamed Dragon. Since then, Nakamura has starred in a string of high-profile movies as well as TV dramas.
Her agency is HoriPro.
IIDAJOJIgakataruSASHOWTAEKOSAIGONOJIKEN (Japanese Edition)
She began her career as a member of the Takarazuka Revue. Early life Shinoda attended Waseda University, where he studied theater and also participated in the Hakone Ekiden long distance race. He worked in a variety of genres, from the yakuza film Pale Flower to the samurai film Assassination , but he particularly became known for his focus on socially marginal characters and for an interest in traditional Japanese theater, which found its greatest expression It awarded the best of in film.
The ceremony did not take place in this year. Bright Future Best Director: He directed ten films, all of which he wrote himself. Early life Itami was born Yoshihiro Ikeuchi in Kyoto. He played the father Ishihara in the comic TV program Cometa-san. This class was abolished in March He moved from Kyoto to Ehime Prefecture when he was a high school student. He attended the prestigious Matsuyama Higashi High The ceremony took place on April 26, , at Theatre Shinjuku in Tokyo. Another Lonely Hitman Best Director: Shiori Kazama Fuyu no Kappa Special: Kokuei For making an extreme Pink film for a long time.
She became the youngest lead star in Japanese drama history when she starred in Sayonara Bokutachi no Youchien. She was the youngest lead actress in a television serial drama by appearing in the serial drama Marumo no Okite in the spring of She also appeared in Japanese films such as Confessions and Usagi Drop. The Chicago International Film Festival is an annual film festival held every fall. Founded in by Michael Kutza, it is the longest-running competitive film festival in North America.
Japanese film directors
Its logo is a stark, black and white close up of the composite eyes of early film actresses Theda Bara, Pola Negri and Mae Murray, set as repeated frames in a strip of film. International Connections Program The International Connections Program was created in in order to raise awareness of the international film culture and diversity of Chicago, and to make the festival more appealing to audience and staff of various ethnicities. Foreign films are screened for free throughout the city weekly from July through Septe Sunset on Third Street.
Filmography Films Juvenile Returner Always: Sunset on Third Street Always: Naki on Monster Island Always: Part 1 Parasyte: Part 2 Fueled: Airs Music videos Bump of Chicken: He was also known for his trademark, cinema verite-inspired shaky camera technique, which he used extensively in many of his films from the early s.
He has two younger siblings, a younger brother, Shota Matsuda, and a younger sister by his parents' marriage and one older half-sister by his father's first marriage. His father died from bladder cancer in , when Ryuhei was 6 years old. The role helped boost him from an entirely unknown actor to a film star, earning him a Japanese Academy award "Newcomer of In her earliest years, she spoke English and Japanese. Tsuchiya's parents divorced when she was seven. She has an older sister, Angela. Modeling career Tsuchiya's modeling career began at the age of fourteen after her older sister Angela, a former fashion model, suggested it.
She entered her sister's former agency, and was picked up by an agent who specialized in magazine-modeling, and her first jobs consisted of modeling for an open collection in Kobe and for Japanese Seventeen in After earning a business degree at Meiji University, he joined Nippon television as a reporter in In he moved on to the newly founded Fuji Television and rose through the ranks as a producer and director. One of his television shows, the chambara Three Outlaw Samurai, so impressed the heads of the Shochiku film studio that he was offered the chance to adapt it as a feature film in Following this film's financial success, he directed a string of equally successful chambara productions through the end of the s.
His two most critical and popular successes of the period are Goyokin and Hitokiri also known as Tenchu , both released in and both considered to be two of the finest examples of the chambara genre. During the s Gosha abandoned pure chambara and tu
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