Log in with your Medical News Today account to create or edit your custom homepage, catch-up on your opinions notifications and set your newsletter preferences. Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. The Global Burden of Disease Study has calculated levels of alcohol use and its effects on health during — in countries. The research , which now features in the journal The Lancet , notes that in , alcohol use was responsible for almost 3 million deaths globally. Alcohol use was the main cause of death for people aged 15—49 that year, accounting for 12 percent of deaths in men of that age.
Emmanuela Gakidou, who currently works at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation IHME at the University of Washington in Seattle, "are consistent with other recent research, which found clear and convincing correlations between drinking and premature death, cancer , and cardiovascular problems. She and her colleagues conclude that the "safest level of drinking is none.keidrawencalci.tk/map17.php
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More than researchers, academics, and other collaborators from over 40 countries worked on the study. To estimate global alcohol consumption, they used data from studies and then used another studies covering 28 million people to examine impact on health. The results revealed that Among women, the proportion of those who drink is 25 percent, whereas for men it is 39 percent. On average, women drink 0.
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The study defines a standard alcoholic drink as one that contains 10 grams of "pure ethyl alcohol. This measure is somewhat less than that used in United States guidelines on alcohol consumption. These state that a standard drink has around " 14 grams of pure alcohol.
S guidelines typically give 14 grams, or 0. The study found large variations in drinking patterns among different countries.
Denmark had the highest proportion of drinkers Average levels of drinking were revealed to be the highest in Romania for men 8. The lowest levels were in Pakistan for men 0. The researchers calculated the health risk in people aged 15—95 years of consuming one alcoholic drink per day for 1 year compared with abstaining. They revealed that this raised the risk of developing or experiencing 1 of the 23 "health problems" mentioned in the study by 0. At population level, this means that the number of individuals developing or experiencing 1 of the 23 problems over the course of a year is out of every , for those who drink one alcoholic beverage per day, compared with out of every , for those who don't drink.
Max Griswold, who also works at the IHME, "have found a protective effect of alcohol on some conditions, but we found that the combined health risks associated with alcohol increase with any amount of alcohol. Gakidou urges that governments need to alter policies so that they emphasize either "lowering people's levels of alcohol consumption or abstaining entirely. In countries such as the U. There is often little mention of the fact that no consumption at all is the safest.
For instance, the fact sheet on alcohol and health from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC starts with "[d]rinking too much can harm your health. It then cites statistics about the effects of excessive drinking. During —, excessive alcohol consumption in the U. Among adults aged 20—64 years, it led to 1 in 10 deaths.
The — Dietary Guidelines for Americans advice on alcohol use opens with "[i]f alcohol is consumed, it should be in moderation" and then goes on to define moderate drinking as no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one for women. According to a report by the Institute of Alcohol Studies, purchasing alcohol was 45 percent more affordable in than it was in Over the last 20 years there has been a significant shift in where people do their drinking.
Large variations in drinking patterns
As statistics from the Beer and Pub Association show, the total number of pubs and clubs in the UK has decreased dramatically , as people are opting more to socialise and drink at home. Higher prices in pubs and clubs, as they attempt to compensate for the shortfall in custom, compared to cheaper supermarket prices, could be a catalyst in perpetuating this shift.
A more pronounced media focus on troublesome binge drinking in public may also have led people to conclude that drinking at home is less problematic. Drinking trends could also be part of the reason why alcohol consumption levels are starting to dip. Craft beers and gin are examples of alcoholic beverages currently in vogue; and more specialist varieties will often carry a higher price tag.
This may be leading an increasing number of people to spend their money on fewer drinks at more expensive prices. Generational factors may also be playing a role in changing cultural attitudes towards alcohol. According to ONS figures , 27 percent of people under 25 are teetotalers.
Several theories have been put forward as potential instigators of this trend, such as: However, the subject of young people and alcohol is something of a double-edged sword, as figures from the ONS also suggest that year olds, although less likely to drink overall, will drink more alcohol than any other age group on their heaviest drinking day. So while alcohol consumption among older generations is more widespread; younger people who do drink are more likely to drink in higher amounts.
Figures in the UK over the last three years have stabilised, which makes it difficult to determine which direction they will head in during the immediate future. The above-mentioned article by James Nicholls tells us that dips in alcohol consumption levels tend to accompany periods of economic recession.
Taking the changing attitudes towards alcohol in younger people into account, a strong case could be made that teetotalism over the long-term will continue to rise among future generations; and in turn, overall alcohol consumption will fall. That said, it is entirely possible that unforeseen economic or cultural trends may be responsible for changes we have not considered, and prove counter to this theory. Then the answer is: Rise in teetotalism Coming back to the present day, according to the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey carried out by the ONS, in , Rising costs In recent years, raising the price of alcohol has often been thought of as a route to reducing excessive alcohol use.
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To go out, or to stay in? Quality over quantity Drinking trends could also be part of the reason why alcohol consumption levels are starting to dip. Changing attitudes Generational factors may also be playing a role in changing cultural attitudes towards alcohol. What will happen in the future?
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